As an object of design, sandpaper could best be described as "an item of pure utility." Seemingly all the choices that inform its physical realization are centered around purpose. Its color a remnant of the abrasives used to create it. Its opposite face, with repeated sections of branding and barcodes, allow it to be pieced out while remaining identifiable.

Mathematics exists in a similar way. Its conception is a matter of necessity - any (visually) aesthetic outcomes arise only as a side effect of the rigorous systems that lie underneath them. Engineering too follows a similar path, though perhaps more focused on the tangible world.

The works in this section arose from a curiosity of randomness and patterns. Each piece contains a logic determining its construction - either via mathematical rules or other systems. This logic, itself just as utilitarian as the sandpaper, breaks up the face of the material and reveals its opposite side. In combination, they produce a sort of ordered randomness.